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Introduction : Indonesia
 




Background: 


The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999 after decades of repressive rule. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.






Geography :Indonesia


Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean


Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E


Map references:
Southeast Asia


Area:
total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 16
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km


Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas


Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km


Coastline:
54,716 km


Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains


Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m


Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver


Land use:
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)


Irrigated land:
45,000 sq km (2003)


Total renewable water resources:
2,838 cu km (1999)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)


Natural hazards:

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m, 9,737 ft), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora


Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires


Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation


Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean



People : Indonesia


Population:
245,613,043 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4


Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)


Median age:
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.7 years (2011 est.)


Population growth rate:
1.069% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112


Birth rate:
18.1 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106


Death rate:
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156


Net migration rate:
-1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153


Urbanization:
urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major cities - population:
JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)


Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)


Infant mortality rate:
total: 27.95 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 72
male: 32.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.33 years
country comparison to the world: 138
male: 68.8 years
female: 73.99 years (2011 est.)


Total fertility rate:
2.25 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
310,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,300 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian


Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)


Religions:
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)


Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)


Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)


Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 134


Government :Indonesia


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies


Government type:
republic


Capital:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones


Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services


Independence:
17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands); note - in August 2005 the Netherlands announced that it had recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945


National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)


Constitution:
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002


Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age


Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%


Legislative branch:
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties


Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission


Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Anas URANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi Hasan ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS; Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI; Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy Fortress or Bendera


International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Scot A. MARCIEL
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya


Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red


National anthem:
name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945



Economy  : Indonesia


Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has weathered the global financial crisis relatively smoothly because of its heavy reliance on domestic consumption as the driver of economic growth. Increasing investment by both local and foreign investors is also supporting solid growth. Although the economy slowed to 4.5% growth in 2009 from the 6%-plus growth rate recorded in 2007 and 2008, by 2010 growth returned to a 6% rate. During the recession, Indonesia outperformed most of its regional neighbors. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship, leading to credit ratings upgrades of Indonesia's sovereign debt to one notch below investment grade by two of the three leading credit agencies. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. YUDHOYONO and his vice president, respected economist BOEDIONO, have maintained broad continuity of economic policy, although the economic reform agendat has been slowed during the first year of their term by corruption scandals and the departure of an internationally respected finance minister. In late 2010, increasing inflation, driven by higher and volatile food prices, posed an increasing challenge to economic policymakers and threatened to push millions of the near-poor below the poverty line. The government in 2011 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's infrastructure to remove impediments to growth, while addressing climate change concerns, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesia's forests and peatlands, the focus of a potentially trailblazing $1 billion REDD+ pilot project.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.033 trillion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$974.6 billion (2009 est.)
$932.6 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$695.1 billion (2010 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
4.5% (2009 est.)
6% (2008 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,300 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
$4,100 (2009 est.)
$3,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars


GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 46.4%
services: 37.1% (3rd quarter, 2010 est.)


Labor force:
116.5 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 38.3%
industry: 12.8%
services: 48.9% (2010 est.)


Unemployment rate:
7.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
7.9% (2009 est.)


Population below poverty line:
13.33% (2010)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2006)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 78
39.4 (2005)


Investment (gross fixed):
32.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13


Budget:
revenues: $119.5 billion
expenditures: $132.9 billion (2011 est.)


Public debt:
26.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
27.4% of GDP (2009 est.)


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
4.8% (2009 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
6.37% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 67
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure repesents the 3-month SBI rate; BI has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.29% (30 November 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
14.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans


Stock of narrow money:
$65.47 billion (31 December 2010 est)
country comparison to the world: 42
$49.63 billion (31 December 2009 est)


Stock of broad money:
$276.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$205.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$253.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$192.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$361.2 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 26
$178.2 billion (31 December 2009)
$98.76 billion (31 December 2008)


Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs


Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism


Industrial production growth rate:
3.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94


Electricity - production:
129 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Electricity - consumption:
119.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28


Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)


Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2009 est.)


Oil - production:
1.023 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22


Oil - consumption:
1.115 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18


Oil - exports:
322,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37


Oil - imports:
456,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Oil - proved reserves:
4.05 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28


Natural gas - production:
85.7 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8


Natural gas - consumption:
45.2 billion cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 18


Natural gas - exports:
33.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7


Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172


Natural gas - proved reserves:
3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14


Current account balance:
$8.532 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$10.75 billion (2009 est.)


Exports:
$146.3 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$119.5 billion (2009 est.)


Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber


Exports - partners:
Japan 17.28%, Singapore 11.29%, US 10.81%, China 7.62%, South Korea 5.53%, India 4.35%, Taiwan 4.11%, Malaysia 4.07% (2009)


Imports:
$111.1 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$84.35 billion (2009 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs


Imports - partners:
Singapore 24.96%, China 12.52%, Japan 8.92%, Malaysia 5.88%, South Korea 5.64%, US 4.88%, Thailand 4.45% (2009)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$96.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$66.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Debt - external:
$196.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$172.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$81.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$72.84 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$33.71 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$30.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,169.5 (2010), 10,389.9 (2009), 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006)








Communications ::Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use:
33.958 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 9


Telephones - mobile cellular:
159.248 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 6


Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)


Broadcast media:
mixture of about a dozen national television networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations operating; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations operating with more than 650 privately-operated (2008)


Internet country code:
.id


Internet hosts:
1.269 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 39


Internet users:
20 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 22








Transportation ::Indonesia
Airports:
684 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 10


Airports - with paved runways:
total: 171
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 34 (2010)


Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 513
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 484 (2010)


Heliports:
64 (2010)


Pipelines:
condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,800 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km (2009)


Railways:
total: 8,529 km
country comparison to the world: 26
narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)


Roadways:
total: 437,759 km
country comparison to the world: 14
paved: 258,744 km
unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)


Waterways:
21,579 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 5


Merchant marine:
total: 1,244
country comparison to the world: 8
by type: bulk carrier 95, cargo 601, chemical tanker 57, container 112, liquefied gas 17, passenger 47, passenger/cargo 76, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 61 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 7, Malaysia 1, Norway 4, Singapore 42, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, Hong Kong 8, Liberia 4, Mongolia 2, Panama 14, Singapore 53, unknown 2) (2010)


Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok


Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift








Military ::Indonesia


Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)


Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)


Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 65,847,171
females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 54,264,299
females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)


Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,263,892
female: 2,191,267 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47








Transnational Issues ::Indonesia
Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; some sections of border along Timor-Leste's Oecussi exclave and maritime boundaries with Timor-Leste remain unresolved; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches


Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)


Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy

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Comments

14 responses to "Indonesia Factbook"

  1. екскурсійні тури по європі On March 9, 2011 at 2:33 PM

    Ohh! It's very interesting. I don't know that most people of Indonesia are muslim.

     
  2. вода On March 9, 2011 at 2:40 PM

    Your country has big water resurces.

     
  3. seo On March 9, 2011 at 2:45 PM

    2 вода

    But freshwater resurces are not very big.

     
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    Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands.[5] It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president.

     
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    Indonesia is really a place where modernity and tradition are well mixed. Your post is explaning such beauty of Japan in words very nicely and accurately.

     
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